Improving your pedal stroke should be a major goal of every mountain biker. The better your pedal stroke is the more power you can produce and the less energy you’ll burn doing it. In other words, a better pedal stroke will help you go faster and further.

Gaining an efficient pedal stroke  is more like growing a beard than chopping wood – it is something that you allow to happen, you can’t make it happen.

This makes it a priority for any mountain bike training program.

But what if I told you that two of the most popular methods used to improve your pedal stroke may actually be making things worse for you? What if you found out that the key to improving your pedal stroke wasn’t in trying to control and change it but instead in trying to let your body naturally acquire what works best for it?

Well, if you buy into the idea that you need to pull up on the backstroke and/ or carefully control the foot position while pedaling to create a pedal stroke with little to no variation in it then this could be the most important thing you ever read as a mountain biker.

Last week I picked up the book 80/20 Running by Matt Fitzgerald. Matt is the same guy who wrote the book Run – The Mind-Body Method of Running by Feel which I’ve wrote about before. Matt is really into the new science of how the brain affects performance and I really enjoy his holistic look on what it really takes to improve as an endurance athlete.

While the book itself deals with a specific type of training protocol (more on it when I finish the book) I read a chapter on the skill of running that I thought had a lot of carryover for us as mountain bikers. As a former runner I see a lot of parallels between the skill acquisition of the running stride and the pedal stroke and Matt talked about some really fascinating studies that tell us a lot about how to better approach training the pedal stroke.

The first set of studies looked at the effects of trying to purposefully change a runner’s stride. Like cyclists, a lot of runners are under the impression that there is “proper” and “technically correct” running form. From stride rate to where the foot strikes the ground and how much they bounce up and down, sports scientists have identified the “best” way to apply it all and if you can just change your running stride to emulate that then you will be a better runner.

But what they’ve found is the exact opposite.

When you try to get a runner to purposefully change a runner’s stride it results in a decrease in efficiency even though they improve their form from an outside perspective. In fact, they’ve found that any conscious manipulation of the running stride will reduce efficiency.

The theory for why this happens is because the body will settle on what works best for it based on where it is currently at. It assesses its physical capacities and experience and self-selects the best running stride for it. That stride will change over time to become more efficient as the runner gains fitness and experience but the important thing is that those changes happen unconsciously rather than being a result of conscious change.

I see this as relevant to us as mountain bikers because we’re told by the cycling experts that, even though we made it around just fine as kids, we don’t really know how to pedal a bike. We’re told that we need to fix our pedal stroke by focusing on creating a brand new pedal stroke, namely by pulling up on the backstroke.

We’re also told that this is a major reason why you “need” to ride clipless pedals and a top reason given by riders for why they use them. They’re told they need to start trying to pull up on the backstroke or keep even tension on the pedals or something else that isn’t what they would naturally do unless someone told them to do it.

But the science would seem to say that we instinctively find the best pedal stroke with time and experience and trying to consciously change it results in a decrease in efficiency. If you didn’t naturally try to pull up on the backstroke until someone told you to do it then the truth is it probably isn’t the right pedal stroke for you. Trying to force yourself to consciously learn it and use it while riding can actually reduce your efficiency.

As an interesting example of this I point you to this video where a rider who had years of experience using a “proper” pedal stroke tried to prove that pulling up was superior to not being able to pull up. But instead he found that when he rode flat pedals and was forced to pedal naturally he was actually more efficient.

Remember that this rider had much more experience trying to pull up. He had years to adapt to this “better” pedal stroke and yet his body was still more efficient with a less familiar but more natural pedal stroke that occurred when he stopped thinking and just pedaled.

All of this reinforces what I have been saying for years – you can and should pedal the same way on clipless pedals that you do on flats. Trying to change your pedal stroke just because you are on clipless pedals results in a less powerful and less efficient pedal stroke. There is no magical pedal stroke that is only available when you have your feet attached to the pedals no matter how badly someone wants to believe there is and not a bit of science exists to prove otherwise.

The second thing brought up in the book was that more experienced runners actually have more variability in their running stride, not less. It seems the theory that you want a perfect and repeatable running stride proved to be just that – another theory with no real basis in the real world.

The reason for this was the acquisition of what he called a “relaxed, smooth ease” that came from running more on reflex than conscious thought. What science has found was that as a runner gained experience their brain activity changed and what once took a lot of the brain being engaged started to use less of the brain.

As the brain stopped trying to micro-manage every movement, the body was able to relax and let the reflex sensors the body has in the limbs allow it to adapt and change the running stride to best retain efficiency. Tied to the first point I mentioned earlier, trying to change the pedal stroke or use an un-natural pedal stroke requires more thought while it looks like a major goal of training is to decrease conscious thought.

There were some pretty interesting studies and examples he brought up but one of the best was how this applied to walking robots. The first attempts at creating a walking robot centered on have the computer control for everything. They were programmed with as many scenarios as possible and could calculate which one to use almost immediately.

But the results was something that didn’t move anything like a human and it still ran into problems it couldn’t solve because it didn’t have a specific program for it. Eventually the scientists realized that the answer wasn’t more central control, it was less. They started using sensors in the limbs to give feedback to the computer, which had a much simpler program to help it use that data to pick the right way “solution” to the movement problem it was presented with.

All of this was based on applying how the human body monitors and creates movement. Suddenly, robots that weren’t programmed to deal with external problems like inclines could navigate them with ease. Plus their movement looked smoother and more natural.

The conclusion was that trying to tightly control how we move might result in some short term improvements compared to someone who is figuring things out with much less control but that over the long run that tight control will actually hinder their development.

This is exactly what you see when you put a new rider on clipless pedals right away. Sure, their choppy pedal stroke smooths out and they see some increase in pedaling power but at what cost? By trying to tightly control the pedal stroke right away they take away from their body’s ability to develop a better, more efficient pedal stroke in the long run.

The same goes for riders who never use flat pedals. They are taking away from the “noise” their body needs to help it choose and develop the best, most efficient pedal stroke.

As Matt put it in the book, gaining a good running stride – or pedal stroke in our case – is more like growing a beard than chopping wood. It is something that you allow to happen, you can’t make it happen. Trying to “make it happen” by tightly controlling the pedal stroke and/ or changing the pedal stroke itself simply is not the right way to go about it.

So, you may ask, what is the best way? Good question, glad you asked…

The best way to improve your pedal stroke is to make sure you have the physical tools you need and then apply them frequently. In other words, do your mobility and strength training and then ride your mountain bike.

You see, even though you don’t want to try and change your natural pedal stroke, you do need to make sure that you can actually apply your natural pedal stroke. You can’t do that if you have a glaring mobility and/ or strength deficit. You end up compensating for that deficit, which isn’t the same as being able to apply your natural pedal stroke.

A lot of riders have bad pedal strokes but not because they need to fix them with pedals, bike fits or changing their technique. When they fix the real strength and mobility issues causing the problem they will see a change in their pedal stroke but not because they thought about or practiced anything. It happens because their body created more efficient movement patterns based on the new and improved “tools” it has access to.

Coupled with making sure you have the mobility and strength to get into the most efficient positions and allow for you true natural pedal stroke is applying it on the bike. Just spending time on the bike is a vital part of giving your body the environment it needs to learn better efficiency. This is also why I’m such a big advocate for spending as much time as possible on your mountain bike since that will help your body develop the specific efficiency it needs better than a road bike.

This is also why I’m an advocate for doing some of your training with flat pedals. Flats have much less control over your pedal stroke and give your body the sensory rich environment it needs to develop improved, more efficient movements during the pedal stroke. Simply put, just riding flats will do more for your pedal stroke than all the single leg pedaling or crazy cranks or whatever else you’re told can improve your pedal stroke.

Now, because this is the internet and someone out there will twist all of this to mean that I hate clipless pedals and road riding I have to insert my usual “that’s not what I said” statement.

I think that clipless pedals have an important part in mountain biking, particularly for certain racing applications. I just don’t feel that new riders need to worry about them for at least a year or two and riders that do choose to switch should spend some time on flats each year to help them improve their skills and pedal stroke.

I also think that riding on the road is a good training tool, I just don’t think you need to do it on a road bike. Since the efficiency you gain is very specific to the movements and postures you use in training it only makes sense to keep those things as close as possible to what you will use on the trail. Using a mountain bike to ride on the road helps you do this much better than riding a road bike, which is much lighter and puts you in a different position.

With that out of the way I’ll wrap this up. Once again, all I am trying to do is help free my fellow riders from the lies and myths surrounding the value of clipless pedals so they can unleash their own natural pedal stroke. You will be a better rider if you learn to ride on flats and you continue to use them to improve your pedal stroke and skills. This approach will also improve your clipless pedal skills as well should you choose to use them.

When you look at the pedal stroke from a natural movement and brain training perspective you see some major problems with the current views on improving the pedal stroke through tight control of the foot and conscious effort to change the pedal stroke. Give your body the tools it needs to unleash its own natural pedal stroke and then focus on giving your body a chance to learn and improve. This will help you improve your riding more than anything else you can possibly do.

Until next time…

Ride Strong,

James Wilson

12 thoughts on “Two ways that misusing clipless pedals can screw up your pedal stroke.

  1. Greg says:

    Another thing that I’ve noticed is that the bend in a bar means that for me the ideal width is on the upper end of a good push-up position or even just a tad wider. It’s like doing a press or pull with a bar that’s slightly curved, the bend helps to align things when your grip is wider. Conversely, it seems to me that running a bar that’s too narrow has negative implications as far as wrist position because of the bend. In my case, my straight grip bar shoulder press or push-up grip is about 710-730mm apart. But a handlebar with a few degree bend brings that out. 750 is pretty natural.

  2. Greg says:

    Another thing that I’ve noticed is that the bend in a bar means that for me the ideal width is on the upper end of a good push-up position or even just a tad wider. It’s like doing a press or pull with a bar that’s slightly curved, the bend helps to align things when your grip is wider. Conversely, it seems to me that running a bar that’s too narrow has negative implications as far as wrist position because of the bend. In my case, my straight grip bar shoulder press or push-up grip is about 710-730mm apart. But a handlebar with a few degree bend brings that out. 750 is pretty natural.

  3. Wacek says:

    I have just been talking to a company making handlebars. Sweep angles very so much between different hadnlebars (even from same maker) and in most cases are an arbitrary number on the tech sheet. I have noticed myself that KORE flat bar at 720mm put my grips in almost exactly same position with 50mm stem as Answer ProTaper at 750 with 70mm stem. a full inch of difference with the same stem. Angles themselves cannot be ignored as they dictate how your whole arms will be aligned. It is hard to have your elbows out with bars with lots of back-sweep. Get them too straight like Blackspire flat bar and you will run into pains in your palms. Finally the stack height. Difference between making push-ups on different levels of a ladder. Handlebar fit: CAN OF WORMS that is. Try different setups for prolonged period of time. 2-3 months each setting. It will take you a year or more to find the sweet spot. There is no other way.

  4. Wacek says:

    I have just been talking to a company making handlebars. Sweep angles very so much between different hadnlebars (even from same maker) and in most cases are an arbitrary number on the tech sheet. I have noticed myself that KORE flat bar at 720mm put my grips in almost exactly same position with 50mm stem as Answer ProTaper at 750 with 70mm stem. a full inch of difference with the same stem. Angles themselves cannot be ignored as they dictate how your whole arms will be aligned. It is hard to have your elbows out with bars with lots of back-sweep. Get them too straight like Blackspire flat bar and you will run into pains in your palms. Finally the stack height. Difference between making push-ups on different levels of a ladder. Handlebar fit: CAN OF WORMS that is. Try different setups for prolonged period of time. 2-3 months each setting. It will take you a year or more to find the sweet spot. There is no other way.

  5. Fabio says:

    Eu estou usando de 820mm e nunca mais volto para outro menor. Mas eu tenho curiosidade em saber por que os profissionais do XC usam guidões estreitos e longos stems

  6. Fabio says:

    Eu estou usando de 820mm e nunca mais volto para outro menor. Mas eu tenho curiosidade em saber por que os profissionais do XC usam guidões estreitos e longos stems

  7. Fabio says:

    I’m wearing 820mm and never go back to another smaller one. But I’m curious to know why XC pros use narrow handlebars and long stems

  8. Fabio says:

    I’m wearing 820mm and never go back to another smaller one. But I’m curious to know why XC pros use narrow handlebars and long stems

  9. Dave Wave says:

    In Ohio, all our trails are in heavily forested areas. We see lots of trees and sometimes the trails run in between two trees that are REALLY CLOSE TOGETHER. When I first started Mtn Biking I had an oldschool used bike with really narrow handlebars and even with those I had to practice maneuvering my bars in between “tree features” (Great balance training!). A few years ago I upgraded to a full suspension bike that came with 650mm + wide bars. On the first ride I wedged those bars in between two trees and went flying like Superman. Leading up to that event I had clipped several trees trying to avoid the opposite tree on the trail. I went home and cut those bars down to 580mm and haven’t had an issue since.

  10. Dave Wave says:

    In Ohio, all our trails are in heavily forested areas. We see lots of trees and sometimes the trails run in between two trees that are REALLY CLOSE TOGETHER. When I first started Mtn Biking I had an oldschool used bike with really narrow handlebars and even with those I had to practice maneuvering my bars in between “tree features” (Great balance training!). A few years ago I upgraded to a full suspension bike that came with 650mm wide bars. On the first ride I wedged those bars in between two trees and went flying like Superman. Leading up to that event I had clipped several trees trying to avoid the opposite tree on the trail. I went home and cut those bars down to 580mm and haven’t had an issue since.

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